Long Jump - In general, jumping movement can be grouped into two parts, namely the long jump and high jump. The second type of jump is performed using one foot repulsion. However, in this study will be discussed on the long jump.
Long jump is one of the development activities in the ability of the motion which carried, from one place to another. In the long jump, there are three kinds of styles are: Long Jump Squat style (tuck), style hang (hang style), and street style in the air (walking in the water). Styles long jump set posture while flying through the air. Therefore, the long jump technique is often referred to as the style of the long jump.



Keep in mind that the causes of differences of differences of the three styles is actually just sat there on the body floating in the air only. So the prefix, the foundation and how to land a third of the force is in principle the same.
About the elements that influence a person's ability to cover long jump explosive power, strength, agility, balance and others.
Drs. Suparman Eddy explained that an essential element in the long jump is as follows:
A. Must be able to generate the momentum as much as possible.
2. Must be able to move the horizontal and vertical momentum style.
3. Must be able to unite forces with the power loss at the time of repulsion.
4. Must be able to use point weight as efficiently as possible.
Long Jump Technique
injauan in the long jump technique includes four issues, namely: How do prefix, repulsion (pedestal), Hovering in the air and landing.
a. Prefix
Prefix is ​​a movement in the long jump is done by running as fast as that done to get the maximum speed before making a repulsion. Can also be said, the prefix is ​​an attempt to get the maximum horizontal velocity is converted to vertical velocity during repulsion (Drs. Suparman Eddy, 1999).
According to (Drs. Suparman Eddy, (1995: 44) things that need to be considered in the prefix is:

    
Distance prefix depends on the ability of each athlete for a short jumper in the jerak been able to achieve maximum speed (full speed) is fairly close distance prefix / short (about 30-35 meters or less than this). As for the other athletes that are relatively far distance just reached maximum speed, the distance of the prefix should be even further (about 30-45 feet or more away from it). For pemulasudah Of course prefix shorter distance than the approximate.
    
Current position stands at the leading point of the foot can be parallel or one leg forward. This depends on the habits of each athlete.
    
Way of making the prefix starts slowly, then faster (sprint). This speed must be maintained until near the resting / reject.
    
After reaching a maximum speed, then about 3-4 final step rests (take off) movement just ran off without reducing the speed has been achieved previously. At 3-4 the final step of this attention and effort devoted to the pedestal on the board / beam fulcrum.
How to take a prefix in the Long Jump, among others, by way of the following:

    
The jumper tried several times to run full speed from the beginning point standing (place / time will make a mark on the prefix) to the board to place on the board repulsion repulsion measured distance.
    
The jumper tried several times to run full speed from the beginning up to the board where the repulsion to the beginning will make the prefix. After exactly a new measure.
    
The jumper tried several times to run full speed from the beginning up to the board where the repulsion of the repulsion to the beginning of the board will perform prefix. Measured even after a new right has set the size to take the appropriate prefix. To keep the possibility of failure to repulsion, usually the jumper makes two marks are marks I and II.
b. Repulsion
Repulsion is the displacement of the horizontal speed to vertical speed that is fast and strong to lift the body up in the air (1998: 45). In a jump away, we usually do with the strongest repulsion foot, aided by the swing leg and swing both arms forward upward.
If the initial velocity of the jumper can combine with the force of repulsion feet, he would bring the entire body upward toward the front of the float in the air. So the point jumper to bring the weight up, flying through the air toward the front with a long time. In other words it can be concluded that there are some things to consider when making the repulsion among others:

    
Repulsion done with strong legs. Strong part of your foot is likely to rely on the heel first, and ends at the end of the leg.
    
Will momentarily resting posture leaning slightly backward
    
Should be appropriate based on the foundation board
    
When resting, his arms swung forward on the go.
    
In the swing leg forward as high as your hips lifted in position your knees bent.
c. Body attitudes in the Air
In accordance with the opinion (Drs. Suparman Eddy, 1995) which specializes style squat as a research technique in the air after the body while the left foot rests. Then the right leg swung quickly toward the front. At the time reached the highest point posture, legs like a sitting or squatting. After moving down both legs stretched forward, the body inclined forward and draw attention to the landing.
How to do the following:

    
Simultaneously perform repulsion, leg swung forward towards the top.
    
When bodies floated in the air, feet down. Simultaneously, the hips pushed forward, Kapala ditengadahkan, dibusungkan chest and both hands up toward the back.
    
When going to land, both legs swung forward, the body bent and head lowered ready for landing.
d. Landing
The landing is the final stage of a series of movements long jump. Things that need to be considered by (Drs. Suparman Eddy, 1999) are as follows:

    
Should be done consciously so that unnecessary movement can be avoided
    
To avoid pain or injury should be landing with both feet parallel and heels first landed in the sand with the arm position
    
Before the heel touching the sand, both feet must be completely straightened / extended in the future. Try to keep the distance between the legs do not get too far apart, because of the wide spacing between the legs means that would further reduce the leap away
    
To avoid so far not sitting on his rump, then after the heel rests on the sand, knees bent and your body soon left leaning continue far into the future
    
After landing do not come out or go back to the prefix through / step on the landing area with the foundation board
Factors Affecting Long Jump
Factors affecting the long jump performance by Suharto in his book in his book "Physical and Role Freshness mentioned:

    
Velocity (speed) is the body's ability to move some or all of the prefix up to the landing. Or resting on a board / beam while doing jumps, speed and flexibility of power is largely determined
    
Strength (Strength) is the amount of energy that can be produced by a group of muscles at maximal contraction during work or exercise in making the leap
    
Explosive power is the ability of muscle to body repulsion in the air when separated from the beam fulcrum
    
Balance is the ability to maintain a certain posture right from the start to finish to make the leap leap
    
Skill is the ability to perform a proper motor movement
    
Coordination is to be possessed by an athlete to be able to coordinate forward movement with rising demand.
Non-technical factors can also be influential in this regard, factors affecting, among others:

    
The motivation of the parents
    
Teachers and coaches who propesional
    
The existence of sufficient funds
    
A good environment
    
Good organization
    
Community support

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